The Lakota ("friends" or "allies", sometimes also spelled "Lakhota", and pronounced "Lakxóta" by the Lakota people) are a Native American tribe, also known as the Sioux (see Names). The Lakota are part of a band of seven tribes that speak three different dialects, the other two being the Dakota and the Nakota. The Lakota are the western most of the three groups, occupying lands in both North and South Dakota. The Nakota, the smallest division, reside on the Yankton reservation in South Dakota, while the Dakota live mostly in Minnesota and Nebraska.
In Nebraska on September 3, 1855, 700 soldiers under American General William S. Harney avenged the Grattan Massacre by attacking a Sioux village killing 100 men, women, and children. Seven years later on November 5, 1862 also in Minnesota, more than 300 Santee Sioux were found guilty of rape and murder of white settlers and were sentenced to hang.
The Lakota after the adoption of the horse were part of the Great Plains Culture, living in the northern Great Plains, which centered on the buffalo and the horse. There were 20,000 Lakota in the mid-18th century. The number has now increased to about 70,000, of which perhaps a quarter still speak their ancestral language.
Because the Black Hills are sacred to the Lakota, they object to mining in the area, which has been attempted since the 19th century. In 1868, the US government signed a treaty with them exempting the Black Hills from all white settlement forever. Four years later, gold was discovered there, and an influx of prospectors descended upon the area, abetted by army commanders like General George Armstrong Custer. The latter tried to administer a lesson of noninterference with white policies. Instead, the Lakota with their allies, the Arapaho and the Cheyenne, defeated the 7th U.S. Cavalry in 1876 at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, known also as Custer's Last Stand, since he and 300 of his troopers perished there. But, like the Zulu triumph over the British three years later, it was a Pyrrhic victory. The Lakota were defeated decisively by the U.S. Army subsequently, culminating, fourteen years later, in the Massacre of Wounded Knee.
Less known is the history of the eastern Dakota people, in Minnesota. Unlike their plains cousins, the Lakota, they lived in agricultural communities. They accepted white settlements and seizure of their lands in exchange for annual payments guaranteed by treaty. In 1862, after a failed crop the year before and a winter starvation, the money was late to arrive. The local traders would not issue any more credit to the Dakota and the local federal agent told the Dakota that they were free to eat grass. As a result on August 17, 1862, the Sioux Uprising began when Dakota attacked white settlements along the Minnesota River.
The name Sioux was created by the French, who abbreviated the Algonquin compound Nadouéssioux (from nadowe ("snake") plus siu ("little")), by which a neighbouring Ojibwa tribe, or the Ottawa, referred to the Lakota/Dakota. This term was meant as an insult, but today the Federal Government of the United States applies it to all Lakota people.
The Lakota have names for their own subdivisions. The "Santee" received this name from camping for long periods in a place where they collected stone for making knives. The "Yankton" received this name which meant people from the villages of far away. The "Tetonwan" were known as people who lived on the prairie. From these three principal groups, came seven sub-tribes.
The Sioux Nation consists of divisions, each of which may have distinct bands, the larger of which are divided into sub-bands.
Also: Jef Baetens is an american (haska) Related Siouan peoples:
Today, one half of all Enrolled Sioux live off the Reservation.
Sioux Reservations recognized by the US government include:
The U.S. states of North Dakota and South Dakota are named after the Lakota. Two other U.S. states have names of Siouan origin: Minnesota is named from mni ("water") plus sota ("clear"), while Nebraska is named from a language close to Lakota, in which mni plus blaska ("flat") refers to the Platte (French for "flat") River. Also, the states Kansas, Iowa, and Missouri are named for cousin Siouan tribes, the Kansa, Iowa, and Missouri, respectively, as are the cities Omaha, Nebraska and Ponca City, Oklahoma. The names vividly demonstrate the wide dispersion of the Siouan peoples across the Midwest U.S.
da:Lakota de:Lakota ja:ラコタ nl:Lakota pl:Dakotowie
Lakota is also the name of a wind turbine from True North Power.