New Mexico is a state in the southwestern United States and its U.S. postal abbreviation is NM. The state's two official languages are English and Spanish. Nuevo México was the Spanish name for the territory north and west of the Rio Grande.
USS New Mexico was named in honor of this state.
New Mexico is centered on the Rio Grande valley, the historical center of Spanish settlement and conquest of the Pueblo people, Native American tribes who lived in small towns along the Rio Grande and nearby as at Acoma. In 1540, the Spanish conquistador Coronado trekked through the area known today as New Mexico in search of the fabled seven cities of gold.The incorporation of the modern-day state's territory into the United States was a gradual process. The northeastern corner was ceded by France in 1803 as part of the Louisiana Purchase. The remainder of what is now New Mexico was then wholly claimed by the Spanish colony of New Spain and its successor state (after 1810), the Republic of Mexico. The incorporation of this territory into the USA came in three stages: the portion to the east of the Rio Grande was claimed by the breakaway Republic of Texas when it seceded from Mexico in 1836; this territory was transferred to the federal government by Texas in 1850.Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the end of the Mexican-American War in 1848. Finally, the southwestern corner of the state (the "boot heel") was ceded by Mexico under the 1853 Gadsden Purchase. The Territory of New Mexico was established on September 9 1850; under the terms of the Missouri Compromise, slavery was legal in the territory, but does not appear to have taken significant hold there. The eastern half of the territory became the State of New Mexico, which was admitted to the Union as its 47th member on January 6, 1912, the western half being admitted separately as the 48th state of Arizona on February 14, 1912.
Law and government
The capital of New Mexico is Santa Fe and its governor is Bill Richardson, a Democrat. Its two U.S. senators are Jeff Bingaman (Democrat) and Pete V. Domenici (Republican). List of New Mexico Governors.
It has a southern border with Mexico, an eastern border with Texas (103°) and Oklahoma, and a western border with Arizona (109°). The 37th parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The spot where New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah come together is called the Four Corners. The landscape ranges from rose-colored deserts to mountains that are snow-capped most of the year. Despite New Mexico's arid image, forests cover a significant portion of the state.
New Mexico's areas of geographical and scenic interest include White Sands National Monument, Capulin Volcano National Monument, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument, the Valles Caldera National Preserve, the Gila wilderness, and Chaco Culture National Historical Park.
New Mexico's 1999 total gross state product was $51 billion, placing it 38th in the nation. Its 2000 Per Capita Personal Income was $22,203, 48th in the nation. The state's main agricultural outputs are cattle, dairy products, hay, nursery stock, pecans and chiles. Its industrial outputs are electric equipment; petroleum and coal products; food processing; printing and publishing; and stone, glass, and clay products. Tourism is an important source of service jobs.
New Mexico's economy is heavily tied to government and military spending, with federal properties such as the nuclear laboratories at Los Alamos and the missile and spacecraft proving grounds at White Sands adding greatly to local economies.
Despite the impact of these facilities, many communities in New Mexico, particularly in heavily Native American and Hispanic rural areas, are economically underdeveloped.
According to the Census Bureau, as of the 2003, the population of New Mexico was 1,874,614. The population of New Mexico has grown 23.7% from its 1990 levels.
The racial makeup of the state is:
7.2% of New Mexico's population were reported as under 5, 28% under 18, and 11.7% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 50.8% of the population.
The presence of various ancient Native American communities, the long-established Spanish and Mexican influence, and the diversity of Anglo-American settlement in the region, ranging from pioneer farmers and ranchers in the territorial period to military families in later decades, make New Mexico a particularly heterogeneous state.
Important cities and towns
Colleges and universities
da:New Mexico de:New Mexico fr:Nouveau-Mexique it:Nuovo Messico ja:ニューメキシコ州 nl:New Mexico nv:Yootó hahoodzo pl:Nowy Meksyk (stan w USA) sr:Њу Мексико sv:New Mexico uk:Нью-Мексико zh:新墨西哥州