The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Italia) is a country in the south of Europe, consisting mainly of a boot-shaped peninsula together with two large islands in the Mediterranean Sea: Sicily and Sardinia. To the north, where it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia, the country is bounded by the Alps. The independent countries of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italian territory.
Main article: History of Italy
Italy's history is perhaps the most important one for the cultural and social development of the Mediterranean area as a whole. The country has been host to important human activities in prehistoric times, and therefore archaeological sites of note can be found in many regions: Latium and Tuscany, Umbria and Basilicata. After Magna Graecia, the Etruscan civilisation and especially the Roman Empire that came to dominate this part of the world for many centuries, came the medieval Humanism and the Renaissance that further helped to shape European philosophy and art. The city of Rome contains some of the most important examples of the Baroque.
The Italy of modern times became a nation-state belatedly — on March 17, 1861 when the states of the peninsula and the Two Sicilies were united under king Victor Emmanuel II of the Savoy dynasty, hitherto ruler of Piedmont and kings of Sardinia. The architect of Italian unification, however, was Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, the Chief Minister of Victor Emmanuel. Rome itself remained for a decade under the Papacy, and became part of the Kingdom of Italy only on September 20, 1870, the final date of Italian unification. The Vatican is now an independent enclave surrounded by Italy, as is San Marino.
The Fascist dictatorship of Benito Mussolini that took over in 1922 led to the alliance with Germany and Japan, and ultimately Italy's defeat in World War II. On June 2, 1946 a referendum on the monarchy resulted in the establishment of the Italian republic, which led to the adoption of a new constitution on January 1, 1948. Members of the royal family were sent into exile because of their association with the fascist regime, and were only allowed to return to their country in 2002.
Main article: Politics of Italy
The 1948 constitution established a bicameral parliament (Parlamento), consisting of a Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati) and a Senate (Senato della Repubblica), a separate judiciary, and an executive branch composed of a Council of Ministers (cabinet), headed by the president of the council (prime minister). The president of the republic is elected for 7 years by the parliament sitting jointly with a small number of regional delegates. The president nominates the prime minister, who proposes the other ministers (formally named by the president). The Council of Ministers (mostly, but not necessarily composed of members of parliament) must retain the confidence (Fiducia) of both houses.
The houses of parliament are popularly and directly elected by a mixed majoritarian and proportional representation system. Under 1993 legislation, Italy has single-member districts for 75% of the seats in parliament; the remaining 25% of seats are allotted on a proportional basis. The Chamber of Deputies has 630 members. In addition to 315 elected members, the Senate includes former presidents and several other persons appointed for life according to special constitutional provisions. Both houses are elected for a maximum of 5 years, but either may be dissolved before the expiration of its normal term. Legislative bills may originate in either house and must be passed by a majority in both.
The Italian judicial system is based on Roman law modified by the Napoleonic code and later statutes. A constitutional court, the Corte Costituzionale, passes on the constitutionality of laws, and is a post-World War II innovation.
Main article: Regions of Italy
Italy is subdivided into 20 regions (regioni, singular regione), of which five enjoy a special autonomous status, marked by a *:
All regions except Valle d'Aosta are further subdivided into two or more provinces.
Main article: Geography of Italy
Italy consists predominantly of a large peninsula with a distinctive boot shape that extends into the Mediterranean Sea, where together with its two main islands Sicily and Sardinia it creates distinct bodies of water, such as the Adriatic Sea to the north-east, the Ionian Sea to the south-east, the Tyrrhenian Sea to the south-west and finally the Ligurian Sea to the north-west.
The Apennine mountains form the backbone of this peninsula, leading north-west to where they join the Alps, the mountain range that then forms an arc enclosing Italy from the north. Here is also found a large alluvial plain, the Po-Venetian plain, drained by the Po River and its many tributaries flowing down from the Alps, Apennines and Dolomites. Other well-known rivers include the Tiber, Adige and Arno.
Its highest point is the Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) at 4,810 m, but Italy is more typically associated with two famous volcanoes: the currently dormant Vesuvius near Naples and the very active Etna on Sicily.
Main article: Economy of Italy
Italy has a diversified industrial economy with roughly the same total and per capita output as France and the United Kingdom. This capitalistic economy remains divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less developed agricultural south, with 20% unemployment. In comparison to its western European neighbours, it has a high number of small to medium sized enterprises (SMEes).
Most raw materials needed by industry and more than 75% of energy requirements are imported. Over the past decade, Italy has pursued a tight fiscal policy in order to meet the requirements of the Economic and Monetary Union and has benefited from lower interest and inflation rates and joined the Euro from its conception in 1999.
Italy's economic performance has lagged behind that of its EU partners, and the current government has enacted numerous short-term reforms aimed at improving competitiveness and long-term growth. It has moved slowly, however, on implementing certain structural reforms favored by economists, such as lightening the high tax burden and overhauling Italy's rigid labour market and expensive pension system, because of the current economic slowdown and opposition from labour unions.
Main article: Demographics of Italy
Italy is largely homogeneous linguistically and religiously but is diverse culturally, economically, and politically. Italy has the fifth-highest population density in Europe at 196 persons per square kilometre. Indigenous minority groups are small. Officially recognized minority language groups are:
Source: Ministero degli Interni del Governo Italiano.
Main Cities in Italy, not representing Metropolitan Areas: Name Regions C C 2001-10-21 1 Roma LAZ 2,546,804 2 Milano LOM 1,256,211 3 Napoli CAM 1,004,500 4 Torino PIE 865,263 5 Palermo SIC 686,722 6 Genova LIG 610,307 7 Bologna EMI 371,217 8 Firenze TOS 356,118 9 Bari PUG 316,532 10 Catania SIC 313,110 11 Venezia VEN 271,073 12 Verona VEN 253,208 13 Messina SIC 252,026 14 Trieste FRI 211,184 15 Padova VEN 204,870 16 Taranto PUG 202,033 17 Brescia LOM 187,567 18 Reggio di Calabria CAL 180,353 19 Modena EMI 175,502 20 Prato TOS 172,499 21 Cagliari SAR 164,249 22 Parma EMI 163,457 23 Livorno TOS 156,274 24 Foggia PUG 155,203 25 Perugia UMB 149,125 26 Reggio nell'Emilia EMI 141,877 27 Salerno CAM 138,188 28 Ravenna EMI 134,631 29 Ferrara EMI 130,992 30 Rimini EMI 128,656 31 Siracusa SIC 123,657 32 Sassari SAR 120,729 33 Monza LOM 120,204 34 Pescara ABR 116,286 35 Bergamo LOM 113,143 36 Forlì EMI 108,335 37 Latina LAZ 107,898 38 Vicenza VEN 107,223 39 Terni UMB 105,018 40 Trento TRE 104,946 41 Novara PIE 100,910 42 Ancona MAR 100,507
Main article: Culture of Italy
Italy is well-known for its art, culture, and several monuments, among them the leaning tower of Pisa and the Roman Colosseum, as well as for its food (pizza, pasta, etc.), wine, lifestyle, elegance, design, cinema, theatre, literature, poetry, visual arts, music (notably Opera), holidays, and generally speaking, for taste.
Europe's Renaissance period began in Italy during the 14th and 15th centuries. Literary achievements, such as the poetry of Dante, Petrarch, Tasso, and Ariosto and the prose of Boccaccio, Machiavelli, and Castiglione exerted a tremendous and lasting influence on the subsequent development of Western culture, as did the painting, sculpture, and architecture contributed by giants such as Filippo Brunelleschi, Leonardo da Vinci, Raffaello, Botticelli, Fra Angelico, and Michelangelo. Modern artists include the sculptor Tommaso Geraci.
The musical influence of Italian composers Palestrina, Monteverdi, Corelli and Vivaldi proved epochal; in the 19th century, Italian romantic opera flourished under composers Gioacchino Rossini, Giuseppe Verdi, and Giacomo Puccini. Contemporary Italian artists, writers, filmmakers, architects, composers, and designers continue to contribute significantly to Western culture.