Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station
Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. In the Hawaiian language, honolulu means "sheltered bay" or "place of shelter." The city is located along the southeast coast of the island of O‘ahu. The term also refers to the District of Honolulu (see Geography below). As of the 2000 Census, the population of (mostly) the Honolulu District was 371,657. However, in Hawai‘i, municipal governments operate only at the county level, and the City & County of Honolulu encompasses all of the Island of O‘ahu, having a 2000 Census population of 876,156 (compare with 1,211,537 for the entire state).
Honolulu is located at 21°18'32" North, 157°49'34" West (21.308950, -157.826182)1. While this is clearly in the tropics, the climate (temperature and humidity) is moderated by the mid-ocean location and some cooling achieved by the California Current that passes through the islands much of year. The average daily temperature in January is 19-27° C (66-88° F) and in July is 23-31° C (74-88° F). Temperatures only rarely exceed 32° C (90° F)
The Honolulu District is located on the southeast coast of O‘ahu between Makapu‘u and Hālawa. The District boundary follows the Ko‘olau crestline, so Makapu‘u Beach is in the Ko‘olaupoko District. On the west, the district boundary follows Hālawa Stream, then crosses Red Hill and runs just west of Aliamanu Crater, so that Aloha Stadium, Pearl Harbor, and Hickam Air Force Base are actually all in the ‘Ewa District.
Most of the city's commercial and industrial developments are located on a narrow but relatively flat coastal plain, while numerous ridges and valleys located inland of the coastal plain divide Honolulu's residential areas into distinct neighborhoods: some spread along valley floors (like Mānoa in Mānoa Valley) and others climbing the interfluvial ridges. Within Honolulu proper can be found a number of volcanic cones: Punchbowl, Diamond Head, Koko Head (includes Hanauma Bay), Koko Crater, Salt Lake, and Āliamanu are most conspicuous.
Honolulu and Juneau, Alaska are the only two US state capitals that cannot be reached by road from the rest of the country, or from the majority of the land area of their respective states.
Neighborhoods and districts
Located on the western end of the city, Honolulu International Airport is the principal aviation gateway to the state of Hawai‘i.
Two freeways serve Honolulu proper:
Other major highways that link Honolulu proper with other parts of the Island of O‘ahu are:
Like most major American cities, the Honolulu metropolitan area experiences heavy traffic congestion during rush hours, especially to and from the western suburbs of ‘Aiea, Pearl City, Waipahu, and Mililani. Land for expanding road capacity is at a premium.
Established by former Mayor Frank F. Fasi, Honolulu's public transit system has been twice honored by the American Public Transportation Association bestowing the title of "America's Best Transit System" for 1994-1995 and 2000-2001. O‘ahu Transit Services' TheBus operates 93 routes with a fleet of 525 buses.
Currently, there is no fixed-rail mass transit system in Honolulu. However, in 2004, the City & County of Honolulu and the State of Hawai‘i approved development of an action plan for a fixed rail mass transit system to be built in several phases. The initial line could link Kapolei in West O‘ahu to Iwilei near Downtown Honolulu. Several attempts had been made since the 1980s and 1990s to construct a fixed rail mass transit system but stalled during Honolulu City Council hearings.
Also in 2004, construction has also started on the new bus rapid transit system using dedicated rights-of-way for buses. The system, proposed by Mayor Jeremy Harris, is expected to link the Iwilei neighborhood with Waikīkī. Objections have been made as to both projects' environmental impact and high construction and maintenance costs.
Honolulu is served by two daily newspapers: the Honolulu Advertiser and the Honolulu Star-Bulletin. It is one of the few remaining cities of its size in the U.S. to have more than one daily newspaper.
Honolulu is also served by 13 television stations (including all the major U.S. television networks), 20 FM radio stations, and 17 AM radio stations.  (http://www.hawaiiradiotv.com/)
As of the census of 2000, there were 371,657 people, 140,337 households, and 87,429 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,674.4/km² (4,336.6/mi²). There were 158,663 housing units at an average density of 714.8/km² (1,851.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the town was 19.67% White, 1.62% African American, 0.19% Native American, 55.85% Asian, 6.85% Pacific Islander, 0.89% from other races, and 14.93% from two or more races. 4.37% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 140,337 households out of which 23.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.7% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size is 3.23.
In Honolulu the population was spread out with 19.2% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $45,112, and the median income for a family was $56,311. Males had a median income of $36,631 versus $29,930 for females. The per capita income for the town was $24,191. 11.8% of the population and 7.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 14.6% were under the age of 18 and 8.5% were 65 or older.
Colleges & universities
(1) Geographic references.