Archbishop of Canterbury
The Archbishop of Canterbury is a bishop of the Church of England. His see is the Diocese of Canterbury and his episcopal chair ('cathedra') is at Canterbury Cathedral. He is the most senior bishop of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion, outranking the other English archbishop, the Archbishop of York. He functions as the Metropolitan of the Province of Canterbury and as the Primate of All England. His see is considered one of the "five great sees," the others being York, London, Durham and Winchester. His diocese covers Eastern Kent. Like the incumbents of the other "great sees," the Archbishop of Canterbury is, ex officio, a member of the House of Lords.
Since Henry VIII broke with Rome the Archbishops of Canterbury have been selected by the English (latterly British) monarch. These days the choice is made in his or her name by the prime minister, from a shortlist of two selected by a committee of clergy and laity.
The first Archbishop of Canterbury was Saint Augustine of Canterbury, who arrived in Kent in 597. The Archbishops of Canterbury have since have been referred to as occupying the Chair of St Augustine.
The Diocese of Canterbury encompasses Eastern Kent. The Archbishop of Canterbury's cathedral at Canterbury is one of the oldest religious edifices in England, having been erected during the twelfth century. The archbishop's jurisdiction over Canterbury matches that of other bishops in their dioceses; however, as the archbishop he has numerous other important functions involving the entire Church of England, some of his duties relating to Canterbury are discharged by another bishop, known as the "Bishop in Canterbury".
There are four suffragan bishops attached to the diocese: the Bishop of Dover, the Bishop of Ebbsfleet, the Bishop of Maidstone and the Bishop of Richborough. The post of Bishop in Canterbury is normally exercised by the Bishop of Dover.
The Archbishop of Canterbury exercises metropolitical (or supervisory) jurisdiction over the Province of Canterbury, which encompasses thirty of the forty-four dioceses of the Church of England. (The remaining fourteen dioceses, in northern England, fall within the Province of York.) Formerly, the four dioceses of Wales were also under the Province of Canterbury; in 1920, however, the Welsh dioceses transferred from the established Church of England to the diestablished Church in Wales.
The Archbishop of Canterbury has a ceremonial provincial curia, or court, consisting of some of the senior bishops of his province. The Bishop of London—the most senior cleric of the Church with the exception of the two Archbishops—serves as Canterbury's Provincial Dean, the Bishop of Winchester as Chancellor, the Bishop of Lincoln as Vice-Chancellor, the Bishop of Salisbury as Precentor, the Bishop of Worcestor as Chaplain and the Bishop of Rochester as Cross-Bearer.
The question of whether the Archbishop of Canterbury or the Archbishop of York should take precedence was once a cause of a long struggle. The dispute was temporarily resolved in 1071 after Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Thomas of Bayeaux, Archbishop of York, submitted the matter to the Pope. Pope Alexander II decided that Canterbury was to have precedence, and that future Archbishops of York would have to be consecrated by, and swear allegiance to, the Archbishop of Canterbury.
In 1119, however, the Archbishop-Elect of York, Thurstan, refused to acknowledge the pre-eminence of Canterbury. As a consequence, the Archbishop of York, Ralph d'Escures, refused to consecrate him. When Thurstan appealed to Rome, Pope Callixtus II not only personally consecrated him, but also issued a papal bull repudiating the supremacy of Canterbury. The matter was finally settled by Pope Innocent VI during the fourteenth century. Under Pope Innocent's arrangement, which lasts to this day, the Archbishop of Canterbury would be recognised as superior to the Archbishop of York. The former would be acknowledged as "Primate of All England", and the latter as "Primate of England". The pre-eminence of the Archbishop of Canterbury is acknowledged by an Act of Parliament passed during the reign of Henry VIII.
The Archbishop of Canterbury also has a precedence of honour over the other archbishops of the Anglican Communion. He is recognised as primus inter pares, or first amongst equals. The Archbishop of Canterbury, however, does not exercise any direct authority in the provinces outside England.
Style and privileges
The Archbishop of Canterbury is entitled to the style "The Most Reverend"; retired Archbishops use "The Right Reverend". Archbishops are, by convention, appointed to the Privy Council, and may therefore also use "The Right Honourable" for life. In formal documents, the Archbishop of Canterbury is referred to as "The Most Reverend Father in God, [Forenames], by Divine Providence Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of All England and Metropolitan". In debates in the House of Lords, the Archbishop is referred to as "The Most Reverend Primate, the Archbishop of Canterbury". "The Right Honourable" is not used in either instance. He may also be formally addressed as "Your Grace" - or, more often these days, simply as "Archbishop", "Father" or "Dr Williams" (in the current instance).
The surname of the Archbishop of Canterbury is not used in formal documents; only the forenames and see are mentioned. The Archbishop is legally permitted to sign his name as "Cantaur" (from the Latin for Canterbury). He shares the right to use only a title in the signature with the Archbishop of York, other bishops and Peers of the Realm.
In the order of precedence, the Archbishop of Canterbury is ranked above all individuals in the realm, with the exception of the Sovereign and Royal Family. Immediately below him is the Lord Chancellor, and only then comes the Archbishop of York.
The Archbishop of Canterbury's official residence in London is Lambeth Palace.
de:Erzbischof von Canterbury ja:カンタベリー大主教